Generally, the body is in homeostasis when its needs are met and its functioning properly.
Open Access funded by Beijing Academy of Food Sciences Under a Creative Commons license Abstract The energy substances mainly carbohydrates and fats are the basis and guarantee of life activity, especially the oxidative phosphorylation for energy supply. However, excessive absorption and accumulation of these substances can lead to metabolic diseases such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and cancers.
A large amount of studies demonstrate that G protein-coupled receptors GPCRs play a key role in identification and absorption of energy substances, and the signaling network of What is homeostasis, immune, and endocrine regulates their storage and utilization.
The gastrointestinal mucus layer not only identifies these substances through identification in diet components but also transfers immune, metabolic, and endocrine signals of hormones, cytokines, and chemokines by promoting interactions between receptors and ligands.
These signaling molecules are transferred to corresponding organs, tissues, and cells by the circulatory system, and cell activity is regulated by amplifying of cell signals that constitute the wireless communication network among cells in the body. Absorption, accumulation, and utilization of energy substances in the body obey the law of energy conservation.
Energy is stored in the form of fat, and meets the demand of body via two coupled mechanisms: Under normal physiological conditions, fat consumption involves ketone body metabolism through the circulatory system and glucose consumption requires blood lactic acid cycle.
Accumulation of excessive energy leads to the abnormal activation of mammalian target of rapamycin mTORthus promoting the excretion of glucose or glycogen in the form of blood glucose and urine glucose.
Alternatively, the body cancels the intercellular contact inhibition and promotes cell proliferation to induce carcinogenesis, which can induce the consumption of large amounts of glucose.
Intercellular communication is performed by signaling molecules via sensing, absorption, accumulation, and utilization of energy substances, and anabolism and catabolism are controlled by the central metabolic pathway. Therefore, slower catabolism will result in longer life expectancy, whereas faster catabolism results in shorter life expectancy.
Energy substances in diet influence the balance between energy and metabolism in the body through the sensing function of the gastrointestinal system at two levels: The present review of studies aims to strengthen our knowledge on cellular communication and metabolic networks to offer a dietary guidance on the metabolism and communication role of various foods.
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Welcome to the Cho-Park Laboratory of Protein Homeostasis at Penn. We are located on the 10th floor of the state of the art Smilow Center for Translational Research on Penn campus. Cardiolipin Synthesis in Brown and Beige Fat Mitochondria Is Essential for Systemic Energy Homeostasis.
Negative Feedback and Stability The usual means of maintaining homeostasis is a general mechanism called a negative feedback loop. The body senses an internal change and activates mechanisms that reverse, or negate, that change.
Introduction: The intestinal barrier is a complex system responsible for the host health. Many gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal diseases are associated to gut barrier disruption.
An increasing interest on nutritional supplements and functional foods focused on the hypothesis that specific.
Cardiolipin Synthesis in Brown and Beige Fat Mitochondria Is Essential for Systemic Energy Homeostasis.