Climate change will increase the opportunities for malaria transmission in traditionally malarious areas, in areas the disease has been controlled, as well as in new areas which have been traditionally non-malarious. An increase in temperature, rainfall, and humidity may cause a proliferation of the malaria-carrying mosquitoes at higher altitudes, resulting in an increase in malaria transmission in areas in which it was not reported earlier. In dry climates, heavy rainfall can provide good breeding conditions for the mosquitoes.
Malaria in sub-saharan Africa Essay: Malaria in sub-saharan Africa Malaria is a major cause of ailment, resulting in approximately million incidents of clinical malaria and claiming thousand lives World malaria report, The treatment involves administration of at least 2 dosages of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine SP during the last two trimesters of pregnancy WHO, a Plasmodium parasites give rise to Malaria.
Infected Anopheles mosquitoes are the vectors that disperse these parasites by means of bites, especially during the night.
|Essay: Malaria in sub-saharan Africa - Essay UK Free Essay Database||This country reportedly loses over N billion annually to the disease believed to be claiming more lives than the more dreaded diseases such as the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS and tuberculosis. Although the Federal Government has been paying attention to the scourge, many Nigerians are still living at the mercy of the disease.|
|The parasites causing malaria are highly specific, with man as the only host and mosquitoes as the only vector. Every year, , people are affected by malaria, and while less than one percent of these people die, there are still an estimated 1, deaths per year.|
|Malaria Essays and Research Papers - arteensevilla.com||Inmalaria has led to nearly deaths, mostly among African children The World Health Organization, Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes.|
The severity of spread depends Roll back malaria essay aspects associated to the vector, the parasite, the human host, and the environment. Plasmodium falciparum, vivax, malariae and ovale are the common types of parasites occurring in humans.
Out of these Plasmodium falciparum and vivax are the most common and plasmodium falciparum is the most fatal WHO, Malaria threatens the health and financial wellbeing of Tanzania withdeaths annually of which 70, are children under five years.
It also deters foreign investment. Malaria accounts for 3.
It also helps to understand the factors underlying the impact or success of policies and programmes designed to address these problems WHO, b. This knowledge can be applied to shape and inform health policies and interventions at different levels. Overally,it helps individuals to understand that health is not merely a medical issue but there are more social issues involved.
This has been shown in children less than five years of age in several studies done in different countries with high prevalence of malaria.
They deduced that the occurrence of parasites among children was more than twice the cause of mortalities Breman et al. Van Geertruyden and others reviewed studies which showed that the perinatal mortality rate PMR was Likewise, the foetal mortality rate was more pronounced in malaria-prevalent countries.
Sex The literature on the occurrence of malaria among males and female is inconsistent and it varies according to where you get the information, either from the health facility or from the community. For instance, a study in Thailand established that the male to female proportion of malaria incidence was 6: Overally, sex seems not to be directly linked to malaria susceptibility apart from pregnancy, so male and females are equally susceptible to malaria.
Pregnancy In malaria afflicted zones, expectant mothers have reduced resistance to malaria especially during the first 2 pregnancies. This is attributed to increased clinical episodes, pregnancy related anaemia, morbidity and death WHO, Pregnant women are more vulnerable to malaria than non-pregnant women.
Resistance is not permanent and is lost when there is no repeated exposure to infections. Co-infection with HIV increases the degree and severity of malaria infection. Despite initial studies suggesting no association between malaria and HIV infection, there is emerging evidence of an important relation, particularly in pregnant women.
HIV infection may interfere with pregnancy-specific immunity acquired during first and second pregnancies and increases the chance of parasitaemia and placental malaria Skeketee, ; Verhoeff, There is also a growing body of evidence that non-pregnant HIV-positive individuals are more vulnerable to malaria infection and to severe disease than those without HIV infection and that this susceptibility is related to the degree of immunosuppression French, ; Grimwade, ; Shaffer, ; Whitworth; Genetics Genetic makeup has an influence on the level of immunity an individual develops to counter malaria infection.
The Fulani ethnic group for example, has less parasitaemia and malaria ailment and more malaria antibody titres than other equally vulnerable groups living in the same region Modiano et al,; ; Riley et al,; In malaria- endemic areas, there is a high occurrence of genes that cause red-cell irregularities like sickle-cell disease and glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
However they offer a selective benefit of protection against malaria mortality Aidoo et al, HLA B53 and MHC antigens have been associated with defence against severe illness and reduced vulnerability to malaria fever respectively Hill et al,; In the case of the Bondei people who are situated in north-eastern part of Tanzania, mothers and cohabiting relatives are often the first to observe a possible illness in children.
They also determine whether the ailment warrants medical or traditional treatment. Fathers as the sponsors have the final say in determining the treatment choice. Oberlander and Elverdan, This shows how health seeking behaviour can be influenced by the people around you and culture.Roll Back Malaria - Malaria is an important public health disease endemic in over a hundred countries globally.
About 90% of malaria deaths occur in Africa with a child dying every forty five seconds. Malaria accounts for 16% of child deaths in the Africa (Remme, Binka & Nabarro ) and 7% of deaths in children worldwide (WHO ). The Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative was established in to strengthen health systems in malaria endemic countries and ensure that effective treatment and prevention tools are available and accessible.
Through Roll Back Malaria programme, Nigeria is committed to drastically reducing by half the social and economic burden of malaria by To fight back this high prevalence of malaria in the country, the Federal Government of.
World Malaria Day. Malaria - a disease without borders. Ten years after UNICEF, the World Health Organization (WHO) and their partners launched the Roll Back Malaria initiative, malaria is still the single largest child killer in Africa. Essay: Malaria.
Malaria parasites have been with us since the beginning of time, and fossils of mosquitoes up to thirty million years old show that malaria’s vector has existed for just as long.
These liver cells then burst releasing the parasites back into the bloodstream where they then enter red blood cells. Here, the Plasmodium feed. Essay: Malaria in sub-saharan Africa Malaria is a major cause of ailment, resulting in approximately million incidents of clinical malaria and claiming thousand lives (World malaria report, ).Most of these cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and prevalence is high among children(WHO,).