Abbreviations If you are frequently confronted with decisions regarding abbreviations, get hold of a copy of either The Chicago Manual of Style or The Gregg Reference Manual. Both these books contain extensive chapters on proper form in using abbreviations, as well as the possessive and plural forms of abbreviations.
History[ edit ] In the 3rd century BC, Aristophanes of Byzantium invented a system of single dots distinctiones that separated verses colometry and indicated the amount of breath needed to complete each fragment of the text when reading aloud. This is the origin of the concept of a comma, although the name came to be used for the mark itself instead of the clause it separated.
The modern comma was first used by Aldus Manutius. The comma performs a number of functions in English writing. It is used in generally similar ways in other languages, particularly European ones, although the rules on comma usage — and their rigidity — vary from language to language.
In lists[ edit ] Commas are placed between items in lists, as in They own a cat, a dog, two rabbits, and seven mice. Some English style guides recommend that a comma be used before the final conjunction and, or, nor in a list of more than two elements.
A comma used in such a position is variously called a serial commaan Oxford comma, or a Harvard comma after the Oxford University Press and Harvard University Pressboth prominent advocates of this style.
Such use of a comma sometimes prevents ambiguity: The sentence I spoke to the boys, Sam and Tom could mean either I spoke to the boys and Sam and Tom I spoke to more than three people or I spoke to the boys, who are Sam and Tom I spoke to two people ; I spoke to the boys, Sam, and Tom — must be the boys and Sam and Tom I spoke to more than three people.
The serial comma does not eliminate all confusion. Consider the following sentence: I thank my mother, Anne Smith, and Thomas.
This could mean either my mother and Anne Smith and Thomas three people or my mother, who is Anne Smith; and Thomas two people. This sentence might be recast as "my mother Anne Smith and Thomas" for clarity.
I thank my mother, Anne Smith and Thomas. Because the comma after "mother" is conventionally used to prepare the reader for an apposite phrase — that is, a renaming of or further information about a noun — this construction suggests that my mother's name is "Anne Smith and Thomas".
Compare "I thank my friend, Smith and Wesson", in which the ambiguity is obvious.
As a rule of thumbThe Guardian Style Guide  suggests that straightforward lists he ate ham, eggs and chips do not need a comma before the final "and", but sometimes it can help the reader he ate cereal, kippers, bacon, eggs, toast and marmalade, and tea.
The Chicago Manual of Style, and other academic writing guides, require the serial comma: If the individual items of a list are long, complex, affixed with description, or themselves contain commas, semicolons may be preferred as separators, and the list may be introduced with a colon.
In news headlinesa comma might replace the word "and", even if there are only two items, in order to save space, as in this headline from Reuters: Separation of clauses[ edit ] Commas are often used to separate clauses. In English, a comma is used to separate a dependent clause from the independent clause if the dependent clause comes first: After I fed the cat, I brushed my clothes.
Compare this with I brushed my clothes after I fed the cat.
A relative clause takes commas if it is non- restrictiveas in I cut down all the trees, which were over six feet tall. Without the comma, this would mean that only those trees over six feet tall were cut down. Some style guides prescribe that two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so must be separated by a comma placed before the conjunction.
Mary walked to the party, but she was unable to walk home. Designer clothes are silly, and I can't afford them anyway. Don't push that button, or twelve tons of high explosives will go off right under our feet!
In the following sentences, where the second half of the sentence is not an independent clause because it does not contain an explicit subjectthose guides prescribe that the comma be omitted: Mary walked to the party but was unable to walk home.
I think designer clothes are silly and can't afford them anyway.Commas at the beginning of sentences follow punctuation and grammar rules.
Learn about comma use with introductory elements--conjunctive adverbs, transitions. Advanced English Grammar: Participles Using participles correctly will dramatically improve the quality of your English writing. If you’re learning English for university, IELTS, TOEFL, or for your career, this advanced writing lesson is for you!
The tone and mood words listed below are also available as a Word document.. Tone and mood both deal with the emotions centered around a piece of writing. Though they seem similar and can in fact be related causally, they are in fact quite different.
If you are frequently confronted with decisions regarding abbreviations, get hold of a copy of either The Chicago Manual of Style or The Gregg Reference arteensevilla.com these books contain extensive chapters on proper form in using abbreviations, as well as the possessive and plural forms of abbreviations.
Good is an adjective while well is an adverb answering the question arteensevilla.commes well also functions as an adjective pertaining to health.
Examples: You did a good job. Good describes job, which is a noun, so good is an adjective.. You did the job well.
Hi Beth Thanks for your excellent question – here are some tips I have picked up over the years on getting started: 1. Just write anything – what you did yesterday, where you want to go on holiday, even ‘blah, blah, blah’. Day 1(*) Unit: Anglo-Saxon/Old English. 1. (*)Print out your grading sheet for the first quarter or use the Excel version. Vocabulary. 1. Keep a vocabulary notebook and/or notecards for terms you will be . How to Write an Essay. In this Article: Article Summary Writing Your Essay Revising Your Essay Writing a Persuasive Essay Writing an Expository Essay Write a Narrative Essay Essay Help Community Q&A Throughout your academic career, you will often be asked to write essays. You may have to work on an assigned essay for class, enter an essay contest or write essays for college admissions.
Well is an adverb describing how the job was performed.. I feel well. Well is an adjective . The comma (,) is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages. It has the same shape as an apostrophe or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the arteensevilla.com typefaces render it as a small line, slightly curved or straight but inclined from the vertical, or with the appearance of a small.