April 21 Comments Rotten Leg Villages Even today in just one small village of Caojie, near Jinhua in the province of Zhejiang in China, there are hundreds of victims of biological warfare still suffering from painful wounds originated more than 60 years ago when their village was decimated in by Japan with glanders, anthrax, and other biological weapon agents. Unit was a gigantic complex covering six square kilometers and consisted of more than buildings, with living quarters and amenities for up to 3, Japanese staff members, of whom were medical doctors and scientists. The complex contained various factories. It had 4, containers for raising fleas, six giant cauldrons to produce various chemicals, and around 1, containers to produce biological agents.
Print this page Bouquet's blankets Ina Soviet defector revealed to Western intelligence that he had overseen an extensive, illegal programme to develop smallpox into a highly effective biological weapon.
Britain and the United States were shocked by the revelations. Russia's intent to use biological weapons, they claimed, was morally abhorrent.
But a closer look at the history of biological weapons shows that Britain and America both played seminal roles in turning lethal diseases into weapons of war. In fact, Britain was probably the first nation to come up with the idea of using smallpox to kill its adversaries.
Britain was probably the first nation to come up with the idea of using smallpox to kill its adversaries. In the 18th century, the British fought France and its Indian allies for possession of what was to become Canada during the French and Indian Wars We must use every stratagem in our power to reduce them.
It has been alleged that smallpox was also used as a weapon during the American Revolutionary War During the winter ofAmerican forces were attempting to free Quebec from British control. After capturing Montreal, it looked as if they might succeed. But in Decemberthe British fort commander reportedly had civilians immunised against the disease and then deliberately sent out to infect the American troops.
A few weeks later a major smallpox epidemic broke out in the American ranks, affecting about half of the 10, soldiers. They retreated in chaos after burying their dead in mass graves. However, because of the availability of a vaccine, they never felt it was a particularly effective weapon.
In NovemberPresident Nixon officially halted the US offensive biological weapons programme, bowing to pressure from the American public who had been abhorred by the use of chemical weapons during the Vietnam War.
The US believed initially that, like them, the Soviet Union had done away with its bio-weapons programme. However, it had miscalculated. In the wake of Nixon's historic abandonment of biological weapons, an international agreement was tabled outlawing their development and production.
Ina senior Soviet bio-weapons scientist defected to the UK. Vladimir Pasechnik who died in Novemberaged 64 asserted that far from abandoning its bio-weapons programme, the Soviet Union had intensified it.
He revealed that the civilian pharmaceutical company Biopreparat, which the Soviets had established inwas in fact a front for a massive offensive bio-weapons programme.
There were more bombshells to come.
Ken Alibek's bosses told him that the Americans and British had not given up on biological weapons and were still engaged in their own offensive programmes. He felt his work was justified on these grounds. This trip cemented Alibek's concerns. His most startling revelation concerned smallpox.
He told them how, during the global campaign to eradicate the disease, samples of smallpox taken by Russian doctors had been turned into weapons by the Soviet military. Donald Ainslie Henderson, who led the eradication campaign, felt particularly betrayed by this.
They had pledged to provide 25 million doses of vaccine every year to the programme. If we hadn't had that amount of vaccine we could never have succeeded. According to Alibek, one particularly virulent strain, India 67 or India 1, was chosen by the Russians to be weaponised.
They perfected techniques for mass producing smallpox and maintained a rolling annual stockpile of hundreds of tonnes. They also developed ways to disseminate the virus in aerial bombs and ballistic missile warheads. Additional work was done to enhance the virulence of the virus and to combine it with other viruses.
Top The new threat Ken Alibek believes that, following the collapse of the Soviet Union inunemployed or badly-paid scientists are likely to have sold samples of smallpox clandestinely and gone to work in rogue states engaged in illicit biological weapons development.
DA Henderson agrees that this is a plausible scenario and is upset by the legacy it leaves. One can feel extremely bitter and extremely angry about this because I think they've subjected the entire world to a risk which was totally unnecessary.
But this may not be the only source of the virus. Unrecorded samples left over from the time when the disease was endemic may still exist in other countries. Inwhen the world's remaining smallpox samples were moved to two high security laboratories in Russia and America, no inspections were carried out to verify that other countries had destroyed their stocks of the virus.
As Henderson says, it would have been an impossible task: Western intelligence agencies also believe, based on circumstantial and anecdotal evidence, that three countries - North Korea, Iraq and Russia - currently have the capacity to deploy smallpox as a weapon of mass destruction.The history of the naming of the town of Amherst, New York, shows a similar idolizing of the general.
On April 10, , the Town of Amherst was officially created by . A Plague upon Humanity: The Hidden History of Japan's Biological Warfare Program [Daniel Barenblatt] on arteensevilla.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
From to , in a headlong quest to develop germ warfare capability for the military of Imperial Japan. The much more apparent horrors of chemical warfare led, in , to the Geneva Protocol. It prohibits the use of chemical and biological agents, but not research and development of these agents.
Biological warfare agents may be more potent than conventional and chemical weapons. During the past century, the progress made in biotechnology and biochemistry has simplified the development and production of such weapons. Various types of biological warfare (BW) have been practiced repeatedly throughout history.
This has included the use of biological agents (microbes and plants) as well as the biotoxins, including venoms, derived from them.. Before the 20th century, the use of biological agents took three major forms.
Deliberate contamination of food and water with poisonous or contagious material. Biological weapon, also called germ weapon, any of a number of disease-producing agents—such as bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi, toxins, or other biological agents—that may be utilized as weapons against humans, animals, or plants..
The direct use of infectious agents and poisons against enemy personnel is an ancient practice in warfare.