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Modern building practices The economic context of building construction Buildings, like all economic products, command a range of unit prices based on their cost of production and their value to the consumer.
In aggregateGeneral structure of electrical power system total annual value of building construction in the various national economies is substantial. In in the United Statesfor example, it was about 10 percent of the gross domestic producta proportion that is roughly applicable for the world economy as a whole.
In spite of these large aggregate values, the unit cost of buildings is quite low when compared to other products. The lowest costs are for simple pre-engineered metal buildings, and the highest represent functionally complex buildings with many mechanical and electrical services, such as hospitals and laboratories.
These unit costs are at the low end of the scale of manufactures, ranking with inexpensive foodstuffs, and are lower than those of most other familiar consumer products.
This scale of cost is a rough index of the value or utility of the commodity to society. Food, although essential, is relatively easy to produce; aircraft, at the high end of the scale, perform a desirable function but do so with complex and expensive mechanisms that command much higher unit prices which reflect not only the materials and labour required to produce them but also substantial capital and research investments.
Buildings fall nearer to food in value; they are ubiquitous and essential, yet the services consumers expect them to provide can be supplied with relatively unsophisticated technology and inexpensive materials. Thus there has been a tendency for building construction to remain in the realm of low technology, for there has been relatively little incentive to invest in research given consumer expectations.
Within this general economic contextthere are a number of specific parameters that affect the cost of buildings.
First are government building codeswhich are enacted to protect public health and safety; these take the form of both prescriptive and performance requirements. Structural requirements include description of the loads buildings must support, beginning with the constant everyday loads of building contents imposed by gravity and extending to the less frequent but more extreme loadings of wind and earthquake forces.
These are specified on a statistical basis, usually the maximum expected to occur with a year frequency. Safety factors for materials are specified to allow for accidental overloading and lapses of quality control.
Economic considerations are also reflected; for example, buildings must perform well under normal gravity loads, but no code requires a building to resist direct exposure to the wind and low-pressure effects of a tornado, for its cost would be prohibitive.
Planning and zoning requirements provide for height and floor area limitations and building setbacks from lot lines to ensure adequate light and air to adjoining properties.
Zoning regulations also establish requirements for permitted building usages, parking spaces, and landscaping and even set standards for the visual appearance of buildings. Another example is requirements for building atmosphere conditions; these include minimum but not maximum temperatures and rates of air change to dilute odours and provide an adequate oxygen supply.
Life-safety requirements include adequate stairways for emergency exits, emergency lighting, smoke detection and control systems, and fire-resistant building materials. Sanitation requirements include adequate numbers of plumbing fixtures and proper pipe sizes. Electrical requirements include wire sizes, construction requirements for safety, and location of outlets.
Beyond the government standards there are market standards, which reflect user expectations for buildings. One example is elevator systems; elevators are not required by building codes, but in the United States, for example, the number of elevators in office buildings is calculated based on a maximum waiting period of 30 seconds.
Cooling of building atmospheres is also not required by code but is provided in climates and building types where the marketplace has shown it to be cost-effective. Building systems and components are perceived as having two dimensions of value.
One is the purely functional dimension: The other is the aesthetic or psychic dimension: For these perceived differences many users are willing to pay more.Electrical protection and lightning protection.
I have a query on earthing system design. One designer has submitted me an earthing plan which interconnects the earth electrodes meant for equipment earthing and those for lightning protection purposes.
An electric power system is a network of electrical components deployed to supply, transfer, and use electric power. An example of an electric power system is the grid that provides power to an extended area.
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Electricity is the movement of electrical charge from one place to another. Electrical Panel Design Software - Industrial Power Control (3 phase, 50/60 Hz electrical system, LT electrical panel design software LT, 3 phase electrical panel and switch board designing is no more a tedious and time consuming job now.
Basic Structure of a Power System. The basic structure of a power system is shown in Fig. Fig. A typical power system. It contains a generating plant, a transmission system, a subtransmission system and a distribution system. These subsystems are interconnected through transformers T 1, T 2 and T 3. Let us consider some typical . Electrical protection and lightning protection. I have a query on earthing system design. One designer has submitted me an earthing plan which interconnects the earth electrodes meant for equipment earthing and those for lightning protection purposes. 2. BASIC ELECTRICITY. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM BASICS -It all starts with the electrons moving around atoms. Electricity is the movement of electrical charge from one place to another.
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How to diagnose the causes of flickering or dimming lights at or in buildings. This article gives simple diagnostic steps that a homeowner can do to determine the type of electrical system problem that is causing flickering or dimming lights or intermittent loss of electrical.