How the EU began The European Union grew out of a desire for peace in a war-torn and divided continent. Five years after World War II ended, France and Germany came up with a plan to ensure their two countries would never go to war against each other again. The result was a deal signed by six nations to pool their coal and steel resources in The UK was one of three new members to join in the first wave of expansion in
A peaceful means of some consolidation of European territories used to be provided by dynastic unions ; less common were country-level unions, such as the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and Austro-Hungarian Empire. History of the European Coal and Steel Community —57 After two devastating world wars, the political climate favoured an international unity that could preserve peace in Europe effectively.
Hamburgafter a massive Allied bombing in in the picture World War II from to saw a human and economic catastrophe which hit Europe hardest. It demonstrated the horrors of war, and also of extremism, through the Holocaust and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Once again, there was a desire to ensure it could never happen again, particularly with the war giving the world nuclear weapons. This left two rival ideologically opposed superpowers.
Allied plans for German industry after World War II and its main coal-producing regions were detached SaarlandSilesiaor put under international control Ruhr area. Monnet Plan With statements such as Winston Churchill 's call for a " United States of Europe " becoming louder, the Council of Europe was established in as the first pan-European organisation.
In the year following, on 9 Maythe French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed a community to integrate the coal and steel industries of Europe — these being the two elements necessary to make weapons of war. On the basis of that speech, France, Italy, the Benelux countries Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg together with West Germany signed the Treaty of Paris creating the European Coal and Steel Community the following year; this took over the role of the International Authority for the Ruhr  and lifted some restrictions on German industrial productivity.
WikiLeaks documents revealed on 8 May  show that at the Bilderberg Group inthere was support for a single European currency i.
The Saar was to have been governed by a statute supervised by a European Commissioner reporting to the Council of Ministers of the Western European Union. After failed attempts at creating defence European Defence Community and political communities European Political Communityleaders met at the Messina Conference and established the Spaak Committee which produced the Spaak report.
The report was accepted at the Venice Conference 29 and 30 May where the decision was taken to organise an Intergovernmental Conference.
Three communities[ edit ] Main article: The executives of the new communities were called Commissions, as opposed to the "High Authority". Euratom would integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union between members.
However, in an agreement was reached to merge the three communities under a single set of institutions, and hence the Merger Treaty was signed in Brussels and came into force on 1 July creating the European Communities.
While the political progress of the Communities was hesitant in the s, this was a fertile period for European legal integration. Enlargement to Delors[ edit ] Main article: History of the European Communities —93 De Gaulle's veto delayed the first enlargement.
After much negotiation, and following a change in the French PresidencyDenmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom with Gibraltar eventually joined the European Communities on 1 January This was the first of several enlargements which became a major policy area of the Union see: Enlargement of the European Union.
InGreenland voted to leave the Community after gaining home rule from Denmark See also: Special member state territories and the European Union. Spain and Portugal joined having applied in on 1 January in the third enlargement.
In the first major revision of the treaties since the Merger Treaty, leaders signed the Single European Act in February The text dealt with institutional reform, including extension of community powers — in particular in regarding foreign policy.
It was a major component in completing the single market and came into force on 1 July Germany reunified and the door to enlargement to the former Eastern Bloc was opened See also: The Council proposed Jacques Santer as Commission President but he was seen as a second choice candidate, undermining his position.
Parliament narrowly approved Santer but his commission gained greater support, being approved by votes to Santer had to use his new powers under Maastricht to flex greater control over his choice of Commissioners. They took office on 23 January The following year, the Schengen Agreement came into force between seven members, expanding to include nearly all others by the end of This paper considers the original aims of the European Economic Community on its formation under the Treaty of Rome as a background to the transformation of the EEC into the European Community.
The European Union grew out of a desire for peace in a war-torn and divided continent. Five years after World War II ended, France and Germany came up with a plan to ensure their two countries. The EU in brief. EU Login Create an EU Login account.
Page Contents The EU in brief. Goals and values of the EU Goals.
The goals of the European Union are: promote peace, its values and the well-being of its citizens; offer freedom, security and justice without internal borders with citizens directly represented at Union level in the.
European Union (EU): History, Members, Aims and Achievements of EEC!
The European Union (EU) is supranational and intergovernmental union of 27 states in Europe. It was established in by the Treaty on European Union (The Maastricht Treaty) and is the de facto successor to the six-member European Economic Community founded in Learn about how and why the nations of the European Union (EU) cooperate in this free online course.
A Brief History of European Integration. Learn about how and why the nations of the European Union (EU) cooperate in this free online course. This is what this course aims to do for you.
The history of European integration is complicated, with a big cast of actors including governments, technocrats, interest groups, and voters, who in turn pursue a range of economic and political goals.