Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. The consequences of reform The conflicts between emperors and popes constituted one conspicuous result of the reform movement.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Pope Innocent III excommunicating the Albigensians leftMassacre against the Albigensians by the crusaders right In January the papal legate, Pierre de Castelnau —a Cistercian monk, theologian and canon lawyer—was sent to meet the ruler of the area, Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse.
His body was returned and laid to rest in the Abbey at Saint Gilles. As soon as he heard of the murder, the Pope ordered the legates to preach a crusade against the Cathars and wrote a letter to Philip Augustus, King of Franceappealing for his intervention—or an intervention led by his son, Louis.
This was not the first appeal but some see the murder of the legate as a turning point in papal policy. Others claim it as a fortuitous event in allowing the Pope to excite popular opinion and to renew his pleas for intervention in the south.
The chronicler of the crusade which followed, Peter of Vaux de Cernayportrays the sequence of events in such a way that, having failed in his effort to peaceably demonstrate the errors of Catharism, the Pope then called a formal crusade, appointing a series of leaders to head the assault.
The French King refused to lead the crusade himself, and could not spare his son to do so either—despite his victory against John, King of Englandthere were still pressing issues with Flanders and the empire and the threat of an Angevin revival. Philip did however sanction the participation of some of his more bellicose and ambitious—some might say dangerous—barons, notably Simon de Montfort and Bouchard de Marly.
There followed twenty years of war against the Cathars and their allies in the Languedoc: The widespread northern enthusiasm for the Crusade was partially inspired by a papal decree permitting the confiscation of lands owned by Cathars and their supporters.
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This not only angered the lords of the south but also the French King, who was at least nominally the suzerain of the lords whose lands were now open to despoliation and seizure.
Philip Augustus wrote to Pope Innocent in strong terms to point this out—but the Pope did not change his policy. As the Languedoc was supposedly teeming with Cathars and Cathar sympathisers, this made the region a target for northern French noblemen looking to acquire new fiefs.
The barons of the north headed south to do battle.
Little was done to form a regional coalition and the crusading army was able to take Carcassonne, the Trencavel capital, incarcerating Raymond Roger Trencavel in his own citadel where he died within three months; champions of the Occitan cause claimed that he was murdered.
Simon de Montfort was granted the Trencavel lands by the Pope and did homage for them to the King of France, thus incurring the enmity of Peter II of Aragon who had held aloof from the conflict, even acting as a mediator at the time of the siege of Carcassonne.
The remainder of the first of the two Cathar wars now focused on Simon's attempt to hold on to his gains through winters where he was faced, with only a small force of confederates operating from the main winter camp at Fanjeaux, with the desertion of local lords who had sworn fealty to him out of necessity—and attempts to enlarge his newfound domains in the summer when his forces were greatly augmented by reinforcements from France, Germany and elsewhere.
Summer campaigns saw him not only retake, sometimes with brutal reprisals, what he had lost in the "close" season, but also seek to widen his sphere of operation—and we see him in action in the Aveyron at St. Antonin and on the banks of the Rhone at Beaucaire.
This was in the medium and longer term of much greater significance to the royal house of France than it was to de Montfort—and with the battle of Bouvines was to secure the position of Philip Augustus vis a vis England and the Empire. The Battle of Muret was a massive step in the creation of the unified French kingdom and the country we know today—although Edward III, the Black Prince and Henry V would threaten later to shake these foundations.
The Catholic inhabitants of the city were granted the freedom to leave unharmed, but many refused and opted to stay and fight alongside the Cathars.
The Cathars spent much of fending off the crusaders. Arnaud-Amaury, the Cistercian abbot-commander, is supposed to have been asked how to tell Cathars from Catholics. His reply, recalled by Caesarius of Heisterbacha fellow Cistercianthirty years later was " Caedite eos.
Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius "—"Kill them all, the Lord will recognise His own". Reportedly at least 7, innocent men, women and children were killed there by Catholic forces. Elsewhere in the town, many more thousands were mutilated and killed. Prisoners were blinded, dragged behind horses, and used for target practice.
Prominent opponents of the Crusaders were Raymond Roger Trencavelviscount of Carcassonne, and his feudal overlord Peter IIthe king of Aragonwho held fiefdoms and had a number of vassals in the region.The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles and Seventy Disciples to contemporary times.
Christianity is the monotheistic religion which considers itself based on the revelation of Jesus Christ. In many Christian denominations "The Church" is understood theologically as the institution founded by Jesus for the. What’s That Hiding in Your Shed?
Our Top Urban Legends. Sheds form the perfect setting for urban legends. Most people can instantly relate, as plenty of houses have them in some form. They’re often dark and neglected as well, giving that sense of mystery you’re looking for with these tales.
Signs, symbols, emblems, flags or insignia of groups under which they organize themselves successfully and who insist on bringing their own world-systems into the existing order(s) on a local and/or global scale, often under the threat of severe sanctions from the state or government.
Part of the content of the Christian faith is the “one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church,” because that is one article of the Church’s Creed. The need for papal leadership was so widely accepted that throughout much of the 12th and 13th centuries the demand for it came from the local churches themselves.
History of Europe - The consequences of reform: The conflicts between emperors and popes constituted one conspicuous result of the reform movement. The transformation and new institutionalization of learning, the reconstitution of the church, the intensification of ecclesiastical discipline, and the growth of territorial monarchies were four others.